The NDS PACE Program, JusticeAid’s 2021 grantee partner, draws on the experience of public defenders working on the frontlines against racism in our police and our court systems. NDS PACE takes lessons learned from that struggle to litigate, organize, and advocate against the policies that fuel overpolicing, mass incarceration, and violence.

To better understand that work, we are sharing resources—articles, videos, podcasts, books and more—that reflect the experiences informing the NDS PACE Program’s approach to change. Dive into the resources below to get a sense of how NDS PACE will work to transform policing in the United States.

The Invention of Police
By Jill Lepore, The New Yorker

Lepore traces the origin of the American police system, back to slavery.


How to Kill Yourself and Others Slowly in America: A Remembrance
By Kiese Laymon, Gawker

A brief, lyrical essay on one man’s experience with police violence and the damage it wreaks on Black communities.


This City Stopped Sending Police to Every 911 Call
By Christie Thompson, The Marshall Project

Eugene, Oregon is imagining a world in which police are not the first people dispatched every time someone dials 911.


A Special Unit to Prosecute Police Killings Has No Convictions
Sarah Maslin Nir, Jonah E. Bromwich and

The case of Daniel Prude’s death is the latest example of the challenges prosecutors face when they try to hold police officers accountable.


Kim Barker, Mike Baker and 

Inquiries into law enforcement’s handling of the George Floyd protests last summer found insufficient training and militarized responses—a widespread failure in policing nationwide.


The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America 
By Richard Rothstein

Richard Rothstein argues with exacting precision and fascinating insight how segregation in America—the incessant kind that continues to dog our major cities and has contributed to so much recent social strife—is the byproduct of explicit government policies at the local, state, and federal levels.


The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness 
By Michelle Alexander

Though the conventional point of view holds that systemic racial discrimination mostly ended with the civil rights movement reforms of the 1960s, Alexander posits that the U.S. criminal justice system uses the War on Drugs as a primary tool for enforcing traditional, as well as new modes of discrimination and oppression.


Stamped from the Beginning: The Definitive History of Racist Ideas in America
By Ibram X. Kendi

The National Book Award winning history of how racist ideas were created, spread, and deeply rooted in American society.


Policing in America
NPR Throughline podcast


What Does Policing Look Like in the Suburbs? 
1A WAMU

The origins of policing in the United States and how those origins put violent control of Black Americans at the heart of the system.


When Communities Try to Hold Police Accountable, Police Fight Back 
By Nicole Dungca and Jenn Abelson, Washington Post

Civilian oversight is undermined by politicians and police, who contend citizens are ill-equipped to judge officers


What Is Meaningful Civilian Oversight of Law Enforcement? 
National Assoc. of Civilian Oversight of Law Enforcement

Oversight is an important first step toward police accountability and transparency in our communities.

Alliance Against Seclusion and Restraint
By Beth Tolley

The author explores: What is the school-to-prison pipeline and how do we stop it?


Dignity in Schools

The Dignity in Schools Campaign is a national coalition that challenges the systemic problem of pushout in our nation’s schools and works to dismantle the school-to-prison pipeline.


Teachers Unite

An independent membership organization of public school educators in New York City collaborating with youth and parents to transform public schools.


Police-Free Schools Guidelines

A Guide for NYC Lawmakers by students, teachers, and parents in NYC public schools.


How the School to Prison Pipeline Works 
By Mariame Kaba, Justice Police Institute (article originally appeared in Teen Vogue)

How the School-to-Prison Pipeline works and why black girls are particularly at risk.


Understanding the School to Prison Pipeline 
By Nicki Lisa Cole, Ph.D., ThoughtCo


Police in Schools Are Not the Answer to School Shootings 

A joint issue brief of: Advancement Project, Alliance for Educational Justice, Dignity in Schools Campaign, and NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc.

Defund the Police: Here’s What it Really Means
Washington Post

Opinion piece by Christy E. Lopez, Professor, Georgetown University Law Center


A Look Inside the New York City Police Department Budgets 
Vera Institute

A look inside the most recently adopted NYPD budget—what exactly it includes, how it compares to other big cities, and where funding can be cut and reinvested in communities.


Freedom to Thrive: Reimagining Safety and Security in our Communities 
Center for Popular Democracy/Law for Black Lives/Black Youth Project 100

This report examines racial disparities, policing landscapes, and budgets in twelve jurisdictions across the country, comparing the city and county spending priorities with those of community organizations and their members.

Mapping Police Violence Project

A comprehensive accounting of people killed by police since 2013.


Fatal Encounters 

A searchable national database of people killed during encounters with the police.


Fatal Force 

Washington Post database of people killed by the police.


Citizens Police Data Project

CPDP takes records of police interactions with the public – records that would otherwise be buried in internal databases – and opens them up to make the data useful to the public, creating a permanent record for every CPD police officer.


Get Cops Out of Schools: A Fact Sheet
By Uma Nagarajan-Swenson, Cecelia Scheuer, Karen Dolan, Institute for Policy Studies

Educators are waking up to the grave emotional and developmental harm school resource officers cause. School districts must reallocate their resources.

Read more about NDS PACE.